ERA5 Reanalysis (Monthly Mean 0.25 Degree Latitude-Longitude Grid)

| DOI: 10.5065/P8GT-0R61

For RDA ERA5 monthly mean data prior to 1979, please see ds633.5: ERA5 monthly mean back extension 1950-1978 (Preliminary version)

After many years of research and technical preparation, the production of a new ECMWF climate reanalysis to replace ERA-Interim is in progress. ERA5 is the fifth generation of ECMWF atmospheric reanalyses of the global climate, which started with the FGGE reanalyses produced in the 1980s, followed by ERA-15, ERA-40 and most recently ERA-Interim. ERA5 will cover the period January 1950 to near real time.

ERA5 is produced using high-resolution forecasts (HRES) at 31 kilometer resolution (one fourth the spatial resolution of the operational model) and a 62 kilometer resolution ten member 4D-Var ensemble of data assimilation (EDA) in CY41r2 of ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System (IFS) with 137 hybrid sigma-pressure (model) levels in the vertical, up to a top level of 0.01 hPa. Atmospheric data on these levels are interpolated to 37 pressure levels (the same levels as in ERA-Interim). Surface or single level data are also available, containing 2D parameters such as precipitation, 2 meter temperature, top of atmosphere radiation and vertical integrals over the entire atmosphere. The IFS is coupled to a soil model, the parameters of which are also designated as surface parameters, and an ocean wave model. Generally, the data is available at an hourly frequency and consists of analyses and short (12 hour) forecasts, initialized twice daily from analyses at 06 and 18 UTC. Most analyses parameters are also available from the forecasts. There are a number of forecast parameters, e.g. mean rates and accumulations, that are not available from the analyses.

Improvements to ERA5, compared to ERA-Interim, include use of HadISST.2, reprocessed ECMWF climate data records (CDR), and implementation of RTTOV11 radiative transfer. Variational bias corrections have not only been applied to satellite radiances, but also ozone retrievals, aircraft observations, surface pressure, and radiosonde profiles.


This dataset contains modified Copernicus Climate Change Service information. Neither the European Commission nor ECMWF is responsible for any use that may be made of the Copernicus information or data it contains.

Temporal Range:
1978-12-31 18:00 +0000 to 2021-12-31 23:00 +0000 (Entire dataset) Period details by dataset product
Air Temperature Albedo Albedo Cloud Frequency
Cloud Liquid Water/Ice Convection Convergence Dew Point Temperature
Evaporation Geopotential Height Gravity Wave Heat Flux
Humidity Ice Extent Incoming Solar Radiation Longwave Radiation
Outgoing Longwave Radiation Planetary Boundary Layer Height Precipitation Amount Runoff
Sea Level Pressure Sea Surface Temperature Shortwave Radiation Skin Temperature
Snow Snow Density Snow Depth Snow Melt
Snow/Ice Temperature Snow/Ice Temperature Soil Classification Soil Moisture/Water Content
Soil Temperature Surface Pressure Surface Roughness Surface Winds
Terrain Elevation Total Precipitable Water Tropospheric Ozone Upper Air Temperature
Upper Level Winds Vegetation Cover Vegetation Species Vertical Wind Velocity/Speed
Vorticity Water Vapor Wind Stress
GRIB parameter table: HTML | XML
Vertical Levels:
See the detailed metadata for level information.
Data Types:
Spatial Coverage:
Longitude Range: Westernmost=180W Easternmost=180E
Latitude Range: Southernmost=90S Northernmost=90N Detailed coverage information
Data Contributors:
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
Malardel, S., N. Wedi, W. Deconinck, M. Diamantakis, C. Kuhnlein, G. Mozdzynski, M. Hamrud, and P. Smolarkiewicz, 2015: A new grid for the IFS. Newsletter No. 146 - Winter 2015/16, ECMWF, 6 pp.

Total Volume:
1.25 TB (Entire dataset) Volume details by dataset product
Data Formats:
Related RDA Datasets:
ERA-Interim Project
ERA-Interim Project, Monthly Means
ERA-Interim Project, Single Parameter 6-Hourly Surface Analysis and Surface Forecast Time Series
JRA-55: Japanese 55-year Reanalysis, Daily 3-Hourly and 6-Hourly Data
JRA-55: Japanese 55-year Reanalysis, Monthly Means and Variances
ERA5 Reanalysis
ERA5 Reanalysis Monthly Means
ERA5 Reanalysis (0.25 Degree Latitude-Longitude Grid)
ERA5.1: Corrections to ERA5 Stratospheric Temperature 2000-2006
ERA5 Modes of Interannual Variability
ERA5 back extension 1950-1978 (Preliminary version)
ERA5 monthly mean back extension 1950-1978 (Preliminary version)
More Details:
View a more detailed summary of the data, including specific date ranges and locations by parameter
Metadata Record:
Data License:
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