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International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 2.5, Individual Observations

| DOI: 10.5065/D6H70CSV

This historical dataset is recommended for ancillary use only and not as a primary research dataset. It has likely been superseded by a newer, improved dataset.


This dataset is superseded by ICOADS Release 3, Individual Observations.

The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) is a global ocean marine meteorological and surface ocean dataset. It is formed by merging many national and international data sources that contain measurements and visual observations from ships (merchant, navy, research), moored and drifting buoys, coastal stations, and other marine platforms. Each report contains individual observations of meteorological and oceanographic variables, such as sea surface and air temperatures, wind, pressure, humidity, and cloudiness. The coverage is global and sampling density varies depending on date and geographic position relative to shipping routes and ocean observing systems.

All three U.S. ICOADS partners (NOAA/ESRL, NOAA/NCDC, NCAR) offer various data access and format options. To review all available options see the ICOADS website.

IMPORTANT: The time period of data available is defined in two segments.

  • ICOADS Release 2.5 covers 1662 through 2007
  • All data following the Release 2.5 end date is based exclusively on real-time GTS data with minimal quality control. These data should be considered preliminary and will be subject to change in new Releases of ICOADS

Temporal Range:
1662-10-15 to 2022-03-31
Air Temperature Cloud Frequency Cloud Height Cloud Types
Dew Point Temperature Humidity Ice Edges Precipitation Amount
Pressure Tendency Sea Ice Concentration Sea Level Pressure Sea Surface Temperature
Surface Winds Swells Visibility Wave Frequency
Wave Height Wave Speed/Direction
Data Types:
Platform Observation
Data Contributors:
National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Ocean Climate Laboratory, National Oceanographic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Met Office, Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom
Research Data Archive, Computational and Information Systems Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado
 |  DE/DWD
Deutscher Wetterdienst (German Meteorological Service), Germany
 |  UN/WMO
World Meteorological Organization, United Nations
Integrated Science Data Management, Fisheries and Oceans, Canada
National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton
Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, Florida State University
Physical Sciences Laboratory, Earth System Research Laboratory, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
National Data Buoy Center, National Weather Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
National Centers for Environmental Prediction, National Weather Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
TRITON Office, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Japan
Woodruff, S.D., S.J. Worley, S.J. Lubker, Z. Ji, J.E. Freeman, D.I. Berry, P. Brohan, E.C. Kent, R.W. Reynolds, S.R. Smith, C. Wilkinson, 2011: ICOADS Release 2.5: extensions and enhancements to the surface marine meteorological archive International Journal of Climatology, 31(7), 951-967 (DOI: 10.1002/joc.2103).

Kent, E. C., S. D. Woodruff and D. I. Berry, 2007: WMO Publication No. 47 metadata and an assessment of observation heights in ICOADS J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24(2), 214-234.

Worley, S.J., S.D. Woodruff, R.W. Reynolds, S.J. Lubker, and N. Lott, 2005: ICOADS Release 2.1 data and products Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-II Special Issue), 25, 823-842 (DOI: 10.1002/joc.1166).

Woodruff, S.D., H.F. Diaz, S.J. Worley, R.W. Reynolds, and S.J. Lubker, 2005: Early ship observational data and ICOADS Climatic Change, 73, 169-194 (DOI: 10.1007/s10584-005-3456-3).

Total Volume:
224.76 GB (Entire dataset) Volume details by dataset product
Data Formats:
Related RDA Datasets:
International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 2.5, Monthly Summaries
International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 3, Individual Observations
International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 3, Monthly Summaries
Metadata Record:
Data License:
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